- General Background
As per UN estimates, nearly 1.3 million people die globally from road accident annually or more than 3000 on a daily basis. In addition, 20-50 million people are injured from these accidents and such injuries are the leading cause for disabilities. Recently road accidents are one of the main causes of death for people between the age of 5-44 and results in a huge economic loss to countries worldwide.
As per the police statistics, there were 8656 road accidents in the fiscal year 2010-011 resulting in 1689 fatalities, 4071 serious injuries and 9133 minor injuries. Taking these under reporting into account, a recent study estimated that were 13247 road accidents in fiscal year 2009-2010 resulting in 1734 fatalities, 4130 injuries (minor and serious) and 7383 damage. Nepal’s strategic road network lying under the Department of Roads Comprises the national highways, feeder roads and strategically important urban roads. According to statistics, 2006 people died and 10,013 injuries due to road accident in Nepal in 2016.s
1.2 Significance of the Study
The information obtained from this study
- Will help policy makers to develop counter measures that could reduce the number and severity of road
- Can also be used by the road safety authorities for planning and evaluating road safety
- Will help to evaluate the existing design
- Will help to study the cause of accident and correct treatment at nearest
- Statement of the Problem
There have been many road accidents everyday, and it has caused a great loss of human life and property but, except in the fit of anger, even the victims donot concern in the minimization of road accident in latter days. They donot want to be reminded of the accident after they gat financial compensation as they think that it will be traumatic to them.
Objectives of the study
- General Objective
- To determine prevalence and factors associated with road accidents in Butwal.
- To assess the problem of road accidents, road safety behavior and its qualitative aspects.
- Specific Objective
- To determine prevalence of road accidents among Pedestrians.
- To identify the most vulnerable population group of the society to road accidents.
- To make computation of economic and financial loss.
- Limitation of the Study
All the studies have their own limitation. No studies can be free from constraints such as of resources time and money etc. this study is done to analyze the consequences of road accident on the social and economic activities of Butwal. The study is conducted within certain limitation and constraints.
- The data used in this study are both primary and secondary data
- Research is based on report provided by the traffic
- This study is limited to the Nepalese laws, rules and
- This study is limited within
- Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters which are as follows:
In this chapter, background of study, statement of problem, objective of the study, significance of the study and limitation of the study are included.
Chapter-II: Review of Literature
This chapter includes the theoretical aspect of road accident, review of former studies and research gap.
Chapter-III: Research Methodology
In this chapter, research design, data collection procedure applied in this study are included.
Chapter-IV: Data Presentation and Analysis
In this chapter, data and information are analyzed with the help of different tools and major findings of the study are also included in it.
Chapter-V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary and conclusions of the study and further suggestions are included in this chapter. Avenues for further research are also incorporated in this chapter.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of related literature is an essential part for every research. In this chapter, the related literature from different books, journals, previous studies and other reliable sources is revised. A case of Road accident is a new in the context of Butwal. An attempt has been made in this chapter to review various literature concerning case of Road accident.
- Conceptual framework
- Review of Related Studies
- Review of articles and journals
- Review of previous research work
2.1 Introduction to Road Accident
A Road Accident can be defined as an event that occurs on a way or street open to public traffic; resulting in one or more persons being injured or killed, where at least one moving vehicle is involved.
‘’ Kunai pani sabari ek arka sanga thokkinu athawa kesailai thakkar dinu lai Drughatana bhaninchha .’’ (Pandey . D . 2014)
A Road Accident is also known as traffic collision among others, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, Pedestrian, animal, roaddebris, or other stationery obstruction, such as a tree or utility pole. Traffic collision may result in injury, death and propertys damage.
- Review from articles
The WHO define road accident as;
- Unpremeditated event resulting in recognizable
- An unexpected occurrence which may involve injury due to collision of vehicle
- Occurrence in a sequence of events which usually produces unintended injury, death or property s
Pandey (2015), Published an article in Yatrakhabar. In the article, he stated the causes of road accident in Butwal. They are;
- Over Speeding
- Drunken Driving
- Distraction to Driver
- Absence of Traffic Light
- Avoiding Safety Gears like Seat belts and helmets
Today, road accident are big problem that cause trouble. They cause financial problems and even also they can cause deaths of people. According to 2014, The data sets includes traffic accident record such as negligence by driver, negligence by Pedestrians, overtaking, high speed, drinking and driving, technical fault of vehicle, overload, cattle on the road and miscellaneous.
According to the National Transportation Safety Board, 80% of traffic accidents are caused by distraction such as using a cell phone while driving.
Research is a system and method of findings right solution for the problem where as research methodology refers to the various steps undertaken by a researcher to find the optimum solution.
3.1 Research Design
This study is based on case study research design. A case study is an in depth study of a particular situation rather than a sweeping statistical survey. It is method used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one easily researchable topic.
3.2 Methods of Data Collection
The method of data collection is purely objective. Mainly primary source of data was used to collect the findings, but secondary data was also used parallel.
- Primary Data: Questionnaire or the schedule is the primary method of the data A list of the questions was made to collect the data from the Pedestrians and the traffic. Separate questions are asked to the traffic police officers, Pedestrians and vehicle drivers. The information obtained from them is analyzed and finally reached to the conclusion.
- Secondary Data: Various helps are taken from the Journal and articles that are already Basically online journals are the most important source of secondary data.
3.3 Data Collection Technique
Different types of data from several sources are necessary for this study. In the process of collecting primary data, the methods like formal and informal interview and questionnaire analysis are adopted wherever necessary.
3.4 Data Collection Procedure
Questions were asked to the traffic police officers, Pedestrians and vehicle drivers in order to get actual and accurate information. Questions was asked personally rather than sending by any means to get accurate and actual information in time.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Presentation and analysis of data is the important stage of the study. In this chapter, all the data or information collected from primary sources (i.e. through questions and interview) are arranged, tabulated, presented in figure and analyzed.
Table : 4.1
4.1 Statistics of different types of Vehicle registered in Butwal
According to this table, at present 302629 motorized vehicles are registered in Butwal.In fiscal year 2011/2012 the number of Busregistered in Butwal was 962. In year 2012/2013 it increases by 3.16%. At present the number of Bus registered in Butwal is 2810. The total number of bus of Western Nepal Bus Association is 2200 and remaining bus are of Siddartha Bus Association. The highest number ( of Motorized Vehicle registered in Butwal is Motorbike.
Pie-Chart showing the percentage of total number of Vehicles registered in Butwal.
The Percentage of total number of Bus registered is 1.5%, Car is 3.19%, Tractor is 1.16%, and the Motorbike is 94.13%. Bythe above pie-chart we can see that the number of motorbike registered in Butwal is higher than the other motorized vehicle.
4.2 Road Accident in Butwal
Road accidents are undoubtedly the most frequent and, overall, the cause of the most damage. The reasons for this are the extremely dense road traffic and the relatively great freedom of movement given to drivers. Accidents involving heavy goods vehicles (especially coaches and lorries with trailers) occur all too frequently despite caIls for responsible behaviour, for respect of the loading regulations and the highway code, as well as the obligation for drivers to adapt their speed, which affects stopping distances, to the traffic and weather conditions (rain, ice, fog, etc.). The prevention of road accidents is also extremely important and will be ensured by strict laws, by technical and police controls, ongoing training for drivers (especially those involved in the transport of dangerous substances) and, if need be, by legal and administrative penalties for those responsible.
More than one-half of all road traffic deaths globally occur among people ages 15 to 44—their most productive earning years. Moreover, the disability burden for this age group accounts for 60 percent of all DALYs lost because of road traffic accidents. The costs and consequences of these losses are significant. Three-quarters of all poor families who lost a member to road traffic death reported a decrease in their standard of living, and 61 percent reported they had to borrow money to cover expenses following their loss.
In general, pedestrians, cyclists, and moped and motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable road users as well as the heaviest users of roads in poor countries. Most people who use public transportation, bicycles, or mopeds and motorcycles or who habitually walk are poor, illuminating the higherrisk borne by those from less privilege. In Butwal, for instance, motorized two- and three-wheelers (suchas motorized rickshaws) will make up the anticipated growth in numbers of motor vehicles.
Table : 4.2
Higher proportion of deaths among these groups in Butwal.
Figure : 4.2
The higher proportion of these groups (Pedestrians, Bicyclists, Two-Wheeled, Four- Wheeled and othermotorized vehicle ) in Butwal.
4.3 Causes of Road Accident
Road accident is most unwanted thing to happen to a road user, though they happen quite often. The mostunfortunatething is that we don’t learn from our mistakes on road. Mostofthe roadusersare quite wellaware of the general rules and safety measures while using roads but it is only the laxity on part of road users, which cause accidents. Main causeofaccidents are:
- Negligence by driver
- By Pedestrian
- High Speed
- Drink and Drive
- Technical Fault
- Cattles on the road
Table : 4.3
|High Speed||Pedestrian||Overtaking||Negligence by driver||Drink & Drive||Technical Fault||Overload||Cattles on the road|
According to the traffic police most of the fatal accidents occur due to over speeding. It is a natural psyche of humans to excel. Increase in speed multiplies the risk of accident and severity of injury during accident. Consumption of alcohol to celebrate any occasion is common. But when mixed with driving it turns celebration into a misfortune.
4.4 Different factors of Road contribute in Accident
Drivers: Over-speeding, rash driving, violation of rules, failure to understand signs, fatigue, alcohol.
Pedestrian: Carelessness, illiteracy, crossing at wrong places moving on carriageway, Jaywalkers.
Passengers: Projecting their body outside vehicle, by talking to drivers, alighting and boarding vehicle from wrong side travelling on footboard , catching a running bus etc.
Vehicles: Failure of brakes or steering, tyre burst, insufficient headlights, overloading, projecting loads.
Road Conditions: Potholes, damaged road, eroded road merging of rural roads with highways, diversions, illegal speed breakers.
Weather conditions: Fog, snow, heavy rainfall, wind storms, hail storms.
4.5 Findings and Results
An attempt was made to analyze the traffic problem and recommendation from three different perspectives of three different Stakeholders i.e Pedestrians, vehicle drivers and passengers and traffic police officer.
4.5.1 Traffic problem from the perspective of pedestrians:
- Absence of Sky bridge
- Absence of traffic light
- Motorbike capturing footpath
- Construction of overhead bridge
- Proper management of footpath business
- Management of traffic light
- Effective implementation of traffic law and charging penalty for committing mistakes.
4.5.2. Traffic problems from the perspective of vehicle driver and passenger
- Vehicles loose the opportunity cost of time if the jam is quiet log they loose the chance of more number of As a result the revenue tends to decrease.
- Passengers in the public vehicles have to allocate more number of times in the vehicles because of traffic
- Some of the motorbike also tends to avoid the traffic rules because of too much hangover of traffic They tend to move ahead from the footpath, a path designed for the pedestrians.
- Developing and alternative route that can reduce the traffic
- Completing the road elongation project as soon as possible which will help to reduce the pressure more than 50%.
- Constructing sky bridge for the pedestrians which will help to minimize the presence of people in the road they may reduce the queue in road by more than 20%.
- More effective mobilizing of traffic
- Traffic problem from the perspective of traffic police
Traffic police arethe facilitators and the controlling body that helps in making the regular flow of vehicles in the road. Since it is one of the most sensitive spot of Butwal the number of police officers is also seen in great number. But due to certain hurdles and obstacles, traffic police only cannot do much more to boost the traffic flow in this major point. But they are regularly doing the program in order to make the continuous traffic flow and creating awareness in the people about the traffic rules and responsibilities. Since they stand maximum number of hours in the single spot, they see more number of problems and keys to solve those problems. Traffic police officer sees followings and opportunities in the road.
- Vehicles tend to avoid the traffic rules: Vehicles (specially motorbikes) have a tendency to avoid the traffic Unless the vehicles left to feel proud by avoiding the traffic rules, this problem will continue.
- Unmanaged parking and footpath business: There is series of footpath business especially in the northern part of This has created obstacles in the free flow of vehicles and pedestrians. Although the traffic police is regularly conducting the business, metropolitan city is not synchronizing the task.
- Narrow road: Even being the most sensitive area of butwal, the road condition of this spot is quiet narrow e. 4 lane of road. Government has already started the road expansion project in this area also. After the completion of project, traffic problem will reduce by 50%.
Traffic police holds the responsibility of making the effective flow of traffic in the road. It has done much more efforts to make continuous flow of vehicles in the road. But these efforts are not sufficient. Traffic police thinks the following ways to solve the traffic problem in Butwal.
- Helping traffic police and eventually oneself by obeying the traffic
- Using the alternative route to make less pressure in the area if
- Crossing the road only from zebra cross, since there is a lack of sky bridge.
- Construction of sky bridge as soon as
- Greater use of the public vehicles.
- Plan to replace the small size public vehicles by the vehicles with more capacity which can hold more number of
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Road accident is a global tragedy with ever-raising trend. In Butwal, it represents a major public Sproblem because of the high number of victims involved and also the seriousness of the consequences for the victim themselves and to their families as well. Accidents are generally classified as single vehicle accidents in which the vehicle is either colliding with fixed objects or with pedestrians or the vehicle may fall in a ditch and multiple vehicle accidents in which two or more than two vehicle can either collide head–on, or one vehicle may collide with the front vehicle at the back or may a have side-swipe type collision. The increase of road accident is closely linked with the rapid growth of population, economics development, industrialization and motorization encountered by the country. It continues to be a growing concern to all those who uses the roads. There are many causes of accident on the road. Lack of experience and licensing older drivers are the causes of escalating accident rate. Nowadays, people can obtain license easily. Actually, people who want to obtain the license must have an experience and know the rule on the road. However, we do not have a big number of experience drivers on the road. The inexperience drivers will give problems to other people and they can be the causes of accidents on the road. Beside that, the older drivers can be the causes of the escalating accident rate. Accident are unfortunate events. They may take place any time any were. We can see and hear many events like plane crash, boat accident road accident etc. The accidents that happen on the road are called road accidents.There are many causes behind the accidents. Lack of experience, over confidence, over crowded roads, are the cause of accidents. The people walking along the road may cross the road from any where. They do not know traffic rules. Some people take driving as an amusement and drive carelessly. They even drive drinking and talking on the mobiles while driving.
Butwal is one of the busiest place of Nepal. More than 5000 vehicles pass via this road in a day. But the condition of road and the flow of traffic is not quite unsatisfactory. It is known as one of the place with more number of traffic jams. Since it is the key way to go any other place, it seems always busy. On the other hand there are no other short and effective alternative routes to escape this point.
Even being the busiest place of Butwal, the road structure is not satisfactory. The most important thing is that this point lack sky bridge, which is the key to cross the road. If it is construct, the problem of jam will be reduced by more than 25%.
After analyzing the view from three different stakeholders, I could reach I the position to recommend the concerned authorities to make the continuous flow of traffic in Butwal.
- Construction of sky bridge for the
- Managing the footpath business and unmanaged
- Completing the project of broadening the width of the road as soon as
- Accelerating the traffic awareness programs on the road and off the road
- Develop as many alternative routes as possible and encouraging the people to use the
- Encouraging the use of public
- Replace the short public vehicles by the vehicles with high capacity that can carry large number of
My name is Aastha Pandey and I am currently in college going for Bachelor’s degree. My major subject is in the business and management field. I am a very individualistic person. I have chosen this topic for my report by observing the condition of Road Accident in Butwal.